How To Get Rid Of Cellulite Easy Cellulite Removal Treatments

By Sean Saunders

You want to know how to get rid of cellulite, right? Well, you’ve come to the right place. This article lists and details two of the most effective cellulite removal treatments known to man. So, if you finally want to discover how to remove cellulite easily & without expensive procedures, all you have to do is read below.

Getting Rid of Cellulite – Natural Cure Number 1

Cellulite diets are great for eliminating cellulite and preventing it from building up in the future. However, these kinds of anti-cellulite diets will require some level of sacrifice on your part, as you will no longer be able to pig out on your favorite types of junk food.

For an anti-cellulite diet to be effective, changes must be made and toxins must be stricken from the diet. It’s important to know that cellulite stems from numerous sources; the greatest of which being toxins and calories from “harmful” foods. These toxins and calories get stored in your body’s fat storage cells, which eventually leads to the accumulation of cellulite. By removing and keeping these toxins out of your system, you can potentially avoid cellulite build-up.

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Foods you should avoid: Refined flour & sugar, alcohol, processed foods, common food additives, junk foods, saturated fats (animal fat), and pretty much anything that comes in a box or can.

Foods you should eat more of: Berries & fresh fruit, water & vegetable juice, lean meats with fat removed (poultry), salmon, fatty fish & fish oils, brightly colored vegetables (high in antioxidants), and a wide variety of other cellulite fighting foods.

How To Get Rid Of Cellulite – Natural Remedy Number 2

Cellulite treatment creams can also be used to remove cellulite easily & effectively. Basically, all you have to do is massage the area with the cellulite cream a few times each day. After several weeks of regular use, the appearance of cellulite will be significantly reduced. This is due to the fact that the cellulite, which is located just beneath the skin, has been melted away and flushed out of the body.

How does it work? Basically, the ingredients in the cream have a number of different purposes; all of which result in the elimination and prevention of skin damaging cellulite. Some of the ingredients work to increase blood flow and circulation, while others will work to repair the connective tissue weakened from cellulite build-up and lack of exercise. Some anti-cellulite cream ingredients will even help to lessen the amount of fat storage cells found in the body. Different creams contain different ingredients — so you really never know what powerful anti cellulite substances you’ll be equipped with.

A few important things to keep in mind in relation to anti-cellulite creams: First, always use cellulite treatment creams in conjunction with other natural treatments. Although they may produce results all on their own, the chances of cellulite reduction are far greater when combined with diets and/or exercise. Second, there are many imitation creams out there that do nothing but moisturize the skin. Having said that, be sure to do some research on the common ingredients found in anti-cellulite creams before you waste money on something that isn’t even capable of reducing cellulite in the first place.

These are just 2 of the natural cures for cellulite that are out there. If you truly want to know everything there is about how to get rid of cellulite, then you’d be wise to do a bit of research and information gathering on your own.

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How To Get Rid Of Cellulite

and To Learn About a Wide Variety Of Other Cellulite Treatment Methods, Try Visiting

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Leading luxury businesses to form a joint venture

Tuesday, March 6, 2007 

Richemont and Polo Ralph Lauren decided to join their skills and rich experience in order to form a joint venture, the name of which is Polo Ralph Lauren Watch and Jewelry Company, S.A.R.L. The representatives of the global luxury business decided to unite their efforts in order to develop luxury timepieces and fine jewelry items.

After the new products are manufactured, they will be distributed through Ralph Lauren boutiques and independent retailers of jewelery items and luxury timepieces. The first jointly developed products are to appear in the fall of the following year.

Richemont and Polo Ralph Lauren will equally share 50 percent of the new joint venture. The partners hope for long-term cooperation. The union will be a completely new experience for both Richemont, which has never cooperated with a luxury fashion designer before, and Polo Ralph Lauren, which, until the present day, has not maintained any links with the precious jewelry and luxury watch businesses.

Ralph Lauren, holding the post of Polo Ralph Lauren’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer , believes that the company’s experience in the area of designing and marketing luxury lifestyle products will blend with Richemont’s experience on a global scale.

Johann Rupert, owning the position of Richemont’s Executive Chairman counts on Ralph Lauren’s reputation and image based upon distinctive taste, style and attention to detail. He hopes that the newly formed joint venture will benefit from these factors, as well Richemont’s expertise in the area of jewelry and watches.

Vivien Goldman: An interview with the Punk Professor

Wednesday, October 3, 2007 

Vivien Goldman recalls with a laugh the day in 1984 when she saw her death, but the laugh fades as she becomes lost in the memory. She was in Nigeria staying in Fela Kuti’s home; she had just arrived hours before and found people sleeping everywhere like house cats when Muhammadu Buhari’s army showed up to haul everyone to jail. Kuti was an opponent of the government who was in jail, and they came to arrest his coterie of supporters. They grabbed Goldman and were about to throw her in a truck until Pascal Imbert, Kuti’s manager, yelled out, “Leave her alone. She just arrived from Paris! She’s my wife! She knows nothing!

Goldman stops for a moment and then smiles plainly. “They thought I was just some stupid woman…. That time sexism worked in my favor.”

Vivien Goldman has become a living, teaching testimony of the golden era of punk and reggae. She is an adjunct professor at New York University who has taught courses on the music scene she was thrust in the middle of as a young public relations representative for Island Records. She writes a column for the BBC called “Ask the Punk Professor” where she extols the wisdom she gained as a confidant of Bob Marley; as the person who first put Flava Flav in video; as Chrissie Hynde’s former roommate; as the woman who worked with the The Clash, Sex Pistols, The Slits and The Raincoats.

As Wikinews reporter David Shankbone found out, Goldman is one of those individuals that when you sit in her presence you realize she simply can not tell you everything she knows or has seen, either to protect the living or to respect the dead.

DS: The first biography of Bob Marley, Soul Rebel, Natural Mystic, was written by you based upon your personal experiences with him, and you have recently written a book about Marley called The Book of Exodus. How difficult is it to continue to mine his life? Is it difficult to come up with new angles?

DS: You were there with Marley through that time when he really caught on; was it obvious to you then that there was something amazing and unique happening?

DS: Warhol’s Factory photographer, Billy Name, once told me he knew that what was going on was amazing, but he never thought Warhol would become the entire fabric of the art world as he is now.

DS: But Marley has become a fabric of sorts…

DS: How do you define punk?

DS: What is the commodified version of punk selling?

DS: That aesthetic is everywhere, as though if one spikes his hair he is punk.

DS: Your philosophy is that punk is not just musical, but also an aesthetic. That it can imbibe anything; that it stands for change and for changing a system. Let me give you a few names, and you to tell me how you think they are or are not punk. Britney Spears.

DS: Dick Cheney.

DS: Kanye West.

DS: Osama bin Laden.

DS: Is the definition of punk relative, then? He’s a Madrasah punk but not a Manhattan punk?

DS: Pete Doherty.

DS: If punk is about change, then why the maudlin sentimentality over the closing of CBGB’s, which at times turned into demonizing a homeless shelter?

DS: I felt it was what it was at a certain moment, but it wasn’t that anymore. They were charging eight dollars for a beer. That’s not very punk, and that wasn’t attracting the punk crowds. It was like people who move to the Bowery because they think it’s so edgy but it’s really a boulevard of glittering condos.

DS: Where do you think New York’s culture is going? There are so few places on Earth with such a large concentration of creatives who meet and influence each other, but the city is becoming less affordable and cleansed of any grit. Is there a place for punk in the Manhattan of the future?

DS: You’re friends with Flava Flav, right?

DS: At the time he wasn’t known?

DS: Do you think apathy is a problem today?

DS: What about G. G. Allin? He used to defecate on the stage to make a point.

DS: Well, he’s dead. Do you think people are afraid to speak out today?

DS: Is violence for the cause of social change punk?

DS: Sandra Bernhard once did an homage to what she called the Big-Tittied Bitches of Rock n’ Roll: Heart, Joan Jett, Stevie Nicks. She mourned that there were no big-tittied bitches left. Who are the big-tittied bitches of Rock n’ Roll today?

DS: Do you have moments of extreme self-doubt where you wonder if anything you do matters to anyone?

DS: You have worked for two corporations that are seen by many as the least punk in their respective communities, the BBC and NYU. How does one remain punk in such environments?

DS: Have you ever been in a situation where you feared for your life, where you thought, this may be the way I go?

DS: What happened to him in the secret jail?

DS: In Jamaica there was so much violence during the civil war.

Leading luxury businesses to form a joint venture

Tuesday, March 6, 2007 

Richemont and Polo Ralph Lauren decided to join their skills and rich experience in order to form a joint venture, the name of which is Polo Ralph Lauren Watch and Jewelry Company, S.A.R.L. The representatives of the global luxury business decided to unite their efforts in order to develop luxury timepieces and fine jewelry items.

After the new products are manufactured, they will be distributed through Ralph Lauren boutiques and independent retailers of jewelery items and luxury timepieces. The first jointly developed products are to appear in the fall of the following year.

Richemont and Polo Ralph Lauren will equally share 50 percent of the new joint venture. The partners hope for long-term cooperation. The union will be a completely new experience for both Richemont, which has never cooperated with a luxury fashion designer before, and Polo Ralph Lauren, which, until the present day, has not maintained any links with the precious jewelry and luxury watch businesses.

Ralph Lauren, holding the post of Polo Ralph Lauren’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer , believes that the company’s experience in the area of designing and marketing luxury lifestyle products will blend with Richemont’s experience on a global scale.

Johann Rupert, owning the position of Richemont’s Executive Chairman counts on Ralph Lauren’s reputation and image based upon distinctive taste, style and attention to detail. He hopes that the newly formed joint venture will benefit from these factors, as well Richemont’s expertise in the area of jewelry and watches.

Claim For Compensation After Road Accident

Claim for Compensation after Road Accident



Claim for Compensation after Road Accident

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With the increase of traffic, road accidents have also increased. If you get the chance, see the road accident graph of the traffic department of your state and you will know the hike in accident and the injuries caused by it. A road accident can cause you a minor injury or can result in a fatal problem that can make to lose some body part permanently or cause some inner injury.

Some of the body parts that frequently get injured in road accident are neck, back bone and brain. And you must know the seriousness of injury on these parts. These are weak points of body and an injury on these remains for long time or may even cause death. The burst of ligaments can even take months to heal and all these demands long treatment resulting is increase in hospital and medicine bills.

If you are a victim of road accident then you get some relaxation in your bills by claiming for it. It is your right to claim for road accident and get rightful compensation. Being innocent, you should not seat quietly and pay for the injury, rather claim for it with the help of a good solicitor and get the compensation for it. The wrong doer should be punished or at least pay you for your losses.

If you think you have enough knowledge and can handle the process then go ahead, else contact an expert accident claim lawyer to help you with your case. He will guide you through the process, will help you in collecting the necessary information required for the case and will also help you in getting sufficient compensation. Don’t think about his fees as third party pays him. You may have all the proofs of your innocence but presenting them in a right way in court is important so that it can increases the weight-age of your case. You can also inquire whether your solicitor is offering ‘No win No Fees’ or not.

You should also take care of few things like an accident case requires medical proof of injury so visit the nearest hospital immediately and don’t forget to collect your medical certificates as they are important for case. Keep a record of all the medical and hospital bills.

Getting compensation of road accident is your right if you are the victim and you must get it. Explain the whole situation to your solicitor and make sure he tells you the situation of your case in terms of legality and how much expected compensation you can get. Compensation differs from cases to case as there are several factors involved in it. You will get as per your case and the accident causing conditions. So go ahead and claim for it today or face the extra burden. It depends on you.

Author is working with online marketing company from last two years and he is writing on informative information and recently he is writing on

Road traffic accident claims


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MLB: Cardinals pitcher Josh Hancock killed in car accident

Sunday, April 29, 2007 

Pitcher Josh Hancock passed away early Sunday after crashing his car into a tow truck. The accident occurred on Interstate 64 in St. Louis, Missouri at about 12:30am, and was pronounced dead at the scene. He was 29 years old.

Josh Hancock was drafted by the Boston Red Sox in 1998 and made his Major League debut in 2002. He was later traded to the Philadelphia Phillies and the Cincinnati Reds before being signed by the St. Louis Cardinals in 2006. He was part of the 2006 World Series Cardinals team, and a current member of the Cardinals roster. He had just played in Saturday afternoon’s game against the Chicago Cubs, pitching three solid innings.

Hancock was mourned around the league. The Cleveland Indians held a moment of silence before their game, displaying Hancock’s picture on the scoreboard. Bud Selig, Commissioner of Major League Baseball, said “All of baseball today mourns the tragic and untimely death of St. Louis pitcher Josh Hancock. He was a fine young pitcher who played an important role on last year’s World Series championship team.”

This is the second time in recent years that a Cardinals pitcher has died during the regular season. In 2002, Darryl Kile was found dead in his room at the team’s hotel during a series against the Cubs in Chicago, Illinois. The final game of the Cardinals-Cubs series, scheduled for 7:00pm tonight, has been postponed because of the tragedy.

Italy will give Libya US$5 billion as compensation for occupation

Sunday, August 31, 2008 

The government of Italy has agreed to pay Libya US$5 billion as compensation for its occupation of the country from 1911 to 1943. The agreement was reached between the Italian Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi, and Baghdadi Mahmudi, Berlusconi’s Libyan counterpart.

“It is a material and emotional recognition of the mistakes that our country has done to yours during the colonial era,” said Berlusconi after arriving in Libya. “This agreement opens the path to further cooperation.”

“The accord will provide for $200 million a year over the next 25 years through investments in infrastructure projects in Libya,” Berlusconi continued. “It is my duty, as a head of government, to express to you in the name of the Italian people our regret and apologies for the deep wounds that we have caused you.”

In return for providing compensation, Italy has asked that Libya attempts to reduce the number of immigrants illegally moving from Libya to Italy.

As a result of the deal, the Libyan government has named August 30 “Libyan-Italian Friendship Day”.

The deal has also made some people ask if the United Kingdom should provide compensation to Nigeria for it’s colonisation of the country.

Dr. Eyimofe Atake from the Senior Advocate of Nigeria commented on this issue: “To be able to answer that question, one needs to know exactly why compensation was paid and the circumstances in which compensation was paid. One needs to know the fact of the case between the Italians and the Libyans and how the issue for the payment of compensation arose. No two cases are necessarily similar, so in the absence of the facts and circumstances that led to the payment of compensation, it will be totally speculative to say if Nigeria could ask for compensation or be paid compensation by Britain.”

“In any event, under international law, Britain and Italy are separate and distinct states. They are sovereign states. Consequently, the British government is not bound by the acts of the Italian government. The decision of the Italian government is personal to them based on their peculiar circumstance and facts, which have nothing to do with the British government and the Nigerian government,” Atake continued.

‘Troopergate’ investigation finds Palin abused her power

Saturday, October 11, 2008 

An Alaskan legislative investigation, nicknamed ‘Troopergate’, concluded Friday that Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin had abused her power during her time as Alaskan governor.

The report, released by a bipartisan investigative committee, found that Palin had violated the state Ethics Act when she allowed her husband to pressure former Commissioner of Public Safety Walt Monegan into firing state trooper Mike Wooten; however, she was well within her rights to fire Monegan because of disagreement on budget cuts.

Sarah Palin had “knowingly permitted a situation to continue where impermissible pressure was placed on several subordinates in order to advance a personal agenda,” the report went on to say.

Todd Palin, her husband, admitted to trying to forcefully remove Wooten because of alleged actions such as driving under the influence, threatening Palin’s father, and using a Taser gun on his son. The pressure came after a hostile divorce between the governor’s sister and ex-husband, who was accused of threatening the family.

The governor’s explanations of her reasons for firing Monegan had been inconsistent, from denying a “personality conflict” to insubordination and incompetence. She consistently denied, however, the firing being related to Wooten.

“The Palins make no apologies,” a statement released by her campaign said, “for wanting to protect their family and wanting to bring attention to the injustice of a violent trooper keeping his badge and abusing the workers’ compensation system”.

While the investigative committee had agreed unanimously to release the report, a few Republicans on the panel had attempted to halt the investigation, citing political bias. Republican Senator Gary Stevens warned voters to be “cautious” and to “realize there’s much more in it than just the one-page findings”.

Acquiring The Proper Change For Your Office Chair Casters

Submitted by: Clarence Houston

Various measurements of furniture chair replacement casters can be found in most stores. If you are searching for those that can provide excellent performance, you have to be more enthusiastic to look for them. Majority of consumers look for office chair replacements that can provide better savings. Restoration can be very simple for any office environment if your chairs are neatly upholstered together with casters and swivels that are regularly inspected and replaced. Office chairs play a vital role for workers in the office as it provides the comfort they need for long hours they spend in the office. If you understand a little about ergonomics, you may adopt a replacement strategy that can even produce more savings when purchasing office chairs. Further information can be obtained from every store personnel.

The office chair caster wheels are available at the lowest prices during an introductory offer. It is wonderful to understand the mechanism of gliding and rolling of the wheels so that you can decide on the best one. The capacity of the chair has to be understood well. You can equip more strength to the chair if you are able to get a strong caster that will support the weight taken by the chair. The wheels of the chair have to be smooth or it can also cause a balancing problem to the person who is using it. The sturdy wheels for an office chair are always recommended so that you get the best furniture for your employees and improve their morale.

For better knowledge about office chairs parts, you may visit stores and have a talk with the owner. The owner may even show you samples of the parts they are vending. Having that discussion may produce more savings aside from transforming the ambience of your workplace. If you have plans of replacing all of your chairs, you may need to think again. There are many available office chair parts that are sold separately so there is no need to get rid of all the chairs. These available chair parts are made from innovative designs. You can select for your desired wheels, swivels, and even the upholstery plus fresh pairs of arms. You can keep the chairs main body and change the damaged parts only. Online search can give you the best places to get your preferred chair parts.

The convenient means of locating furniture glides:

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1. Identifying your needs is very significant.

2. High-quality glides are offered.

3. Buying in bulk can produce more savings.

4. Glides can be bought via the Internet

5. Investing in tough glides to hold weighty objects is recommended.

If you are in need of small furniture casters, you may need to bargain with any supplier that offers these products. Office chairs with wheels and casters is very significant around the office because it allows your staff to move at ease. Your employees can easily coordinate with each other by sharing workplaces at lesser time. Keeping an amusing office atmosphere adds to the comfort of all employees making the place more conducive to work; that is why investing on these type of chairs is often recommended. Thinking about the employees welfare is very essential for development on the part of the office operator. Search for casters that you need as replacement parts and you might be able to produce more savings from cheap costs offered by different suppliers.

Purchasing office chair casters in larger volumes is always recommended to save on cash. Inspecting the chairs for worn-out parts and replacing them without buying the whole chair is the most proper move. Re-upholster the chairs cushions and change the damaged arms and casters so your staffs could work properly once again. A nice looking office environment displays neatly arranged office chairs which can be accomplished if you capitalize decorously in these stuffs. Proper maintenance of the office furniture is very vital to keep it nice and workable for the employees.

You can talk to the company and find out the mechanism available in office chair caster wheels. If you are comfortable, you can go for the locking system that does not allow the chair to move. Any kind of office improvement can surely be done with the help of new furniture and it is certainly good to have some new chairs in your office with appropriate casters. Movement can be restricted with locks and the good quality ones are specially manufactured with ease as they do not spoil the flooring of your office.

About the Author: If you want to find out more information about

heavy duty office chair casters

, you should visit Clarence Houston’s site today where he shares a lot more information on how to get the most appropriate office furniture arrangements to suit your budget. Go here now to get more details



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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.[1] The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981.[2]

Following the demise of the League of Nations and the formation of the United Nations the international community was acutely aware of the refugee crisis following the end of World War II. In 1947, the International Refugee Organization (IRO) was founded by the United Nations.[3] The IRO was the first international agency to deal comprehensively with all aspects pertaining to refugees’ lives. Preceding this was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, which was established in 1944 to address the millions of people displaced across Europe as a result of World War II.[3]

In the late 1940s, the IRO fell out of favor, but the UN agreed that a body was required to oversee global refugee issues. Despite many heated debates in the General Assembly, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was founded as a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly by Resolution 319 (IV) of the United Nations General Assembly of December 1949. However, the organization was only intended to operate for 3 years, from January 1951, due to the disagreement of many UN member states over the implications of a permanent body.[3]

UNHCR’s mandate was originally set out in its statute, annexed to resolution 428 (V) of the United Nations General Assembly of 1950. This mandate has been subsequently broadened by numerous resolutions of the General Assembly and its Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).[3] According to UNHCR,

[its] mandate is to provide, on a non-political and humanitarian basis, international protection to refugees and to seek permanent solutions for them.[3]

Soon after the signing of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, it became clear that refugees were not solely restricted to Europe. In 1956, UNHCR was involved in coordinating the response to the uprising in Hungary. Just a year later, UNHCR was tasked with dealing with Chinese refugees in Hong Kong, while also responding Algerian refugees who had fled to Morocco and Tunisia in the wake of Algeria’s war for independence. The responses marked the beginning of a wider, global mandate in refugee protection and humanitarian assistance.[3]

Decolonization in the 1960s triggered large refugee movements in Africa, creating a massive challenge that would transform UNHCR; unlike the refugee crises in Europe, there were no durable solutions in Africa and many refugees who fled one country only found instability in their new country of asylum. By the end of the decade, two-thirds of UNHCR’s budget was focused on operations in Africa and in just one decade, the organization’s focus had shifted from an almost exclusive focus on Europe.[3]

In the 1970s, UNHCR refugee operations continued to spread around the globe, with the mass exodus of East Pakistanis to India shortly before the birth of Bangladesh. Adding to the woes in Asia was the Vietnam war, with millions fleeing the war-torn country.[3]

The 1980s saw new challenges for UNHCR, with many member states unwilling to resettle refugees due to the sharp rise in refugee numbers over the 1970s. Often, these refugees were not fleeing wars between states, but inter-ethnic conflict in newly independent states. The targeting of civilians as military strategy added to the displacement in many nations, so even ‘minor’ conflicts could result in a large number of displaced persons. Whether in Asia, Central America or Africa, these conflicts, fueled by superpower rivalry and aggravated by socio-economic problems within the concerned countries, durable solutions continued to prove a massive challenge for the UNHCR. As a result, the UNHCR became more heavily involved with assistance programs within refugee camps, often located in hostile environments.[3]

The end of the Cold War marked continued inter-ethnic conflict and contributed heavily to refugee flight. In addition, humanitarian intervention by multinational forces became more frequent and the media began to play a big role, particularly in the lead up to the 1999 NATO mission in Yugoslavia, while by contrast, the 1994 Rwandan Genocide had little attention. The genocide in Rwanda caused a massive refugee crisis, again highlighting the difficulties for UNHCR to uphold its mandate, and the UNHCR continued to battle against restrictive asylum policies in so called ‘rich’ nations.[3]

UNHCR was established on 14 December 1950[4] and succeeded the earlier United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another state, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country.

UNHCR’s mandate has gradually been expanded to include protecting and providing humanitarian assistance to whom it describes as other persons “of concern,” including internally displaced persons (IDPs) who would fit the legal definition of a refugee under the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization for African Unity Convention, or some other treaty if they left their country, but who presently remain in their country of origin. UNHCR presently has major missions in Lebanon, South Sudan, Chad/Darfur, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Afghanistan as well as Kenya to assist and provide services to IDPs and refugees.

To achieve its mandate, the UNHCR engaged in activities both in the countries of interest and in countries with donors. For example, the UNHCR hosts expert roundtables to discuss issues of concern to the international refugee community.

Most Palestinian refugees – those in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan – do not come within the responsibility of the UNHCR, but instead come under an older body, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). The UNRWA has a much broader definition of “refugee” than the UNHCR, including not only refugees themselves but their descendants in perpetuity; however, it only covers refugees stemming from the 1948 and 1967 Arab-Israeli wars. Other Palestinian refugees outside of UNRWA’s area of operations do fall under UNHCR’s mandate, if they meet the UNHCR’s more limited definition of refugee.

Several new programs have recently been introduced to support and to heighten awareness of the issues faced by refugees around the world. These two new programs are a product of the benchmarks set out by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

Since 1954, the UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award has been annually awarded to a person or an organization in recognition of outstanding service to the cause of refugees, displaced or stateless people.

The UNHCR itself was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1954 and 1981.

Refugee camp in Darfur (Chad)

A helicopter arrives at a refugee facility in Macedonia with an underslung load of Aid

Trucks loaded with supplies drive across the border from Turkey into Iraq to take part in Operation Provide Comfort, a multinational effort to aid Kurdish refugees

An UNHCR-officer talks with a Marine during Exercise Eager Lion 12

Workers from the UNHCR, and CARE International gather bundles of shelters and mosquito nets in Kenya

Heavily fortified UNHCR offices in Somaliland

As of 1 January 2007, UNHCR reported a total of 21 018 589 individuals falling under its mandate.

As of April 2008, the UNHCR employed a staff of 6,351 people in 117 countries.[5]

The post of High Commissioner has been held by:[6]

Prior to the establishment of UNHCR, Fridtjof Nansen was the League of Nations High Commissioner of the Nansen International Office for Refugees, from 1922.

After 10 years serving as a Goodwill Ambassador, Angelina Jolie was promoted in 2012 to Special Envoy to the High Commissioner. In this role she represents the UNHCR and High Commissioner António Guterres at the diplomatic level and works to facilitate long-term solutions for people displaced by large-scale crises, such as Afghanistan and Somalia. “This is an exceptional position reflecting an exceptional role she has played for us,” said a UNHCR spokesman.

UNHCR is also represented by a number of UNHCR Goodwill Ambassadors, who at present are:

Previous ambassadors include: