Main Features Of Unsecured Loans

By Troy Charles G. Burton

Unsecured loans allow the debtor to obtain debts based on ones credit history and personal background. This type of loan does not require the debtor to give collateral or mortgage a property as a security for the payment of such debts in case of insolvency. Having said these, unsecured loans are the safest type of loans for the debtor. However, this feature does not mean no property can be forfeited in favor of the creditor in case the debtor cannot pay his or her monetary obligations because in some states, the court may be asked to grant remedy for the creditor to comply and pay the said debts by way of attaching properties of the debtor. Although this process is lengthy and time consuming, it ensures that the debtor does not run away freely from ones financial obligations. Hence, despite this advantage on the part of the debtor in applying for an unsecured loan, it must be noted that a debt must still be paid not only because it is a legal obligation but it is also a moral obligation on the part of the debtor.

In applying for an unsecured loan, the creditor also has to undertake comprehensive and strict safety nets to ensure that his or her interests are protected. All creditors of unsecured loans perform background check on the applicant-debtor. This background check involves the applicants credit history, personal financial capacity, and other matters relevant in determining whether or not the person applying for an unsecured loan can repay the same and up to how much he or she can afford to loan and pay. Unsecured loans also entail strict observance of the terms and conditions of the loan. Since the creditor has no security, any default, missed, or late payments are dealt with accordingly. Moreover, unsecured loans provide higher risks on the part of the creditor. Hence, this type of loan has higher interest rate to easily cope with and repay all the risks the creditor has to undergo on an unsecured loan. With all of these risks, advantages, and disadvantages of the features of an unsecured loan, it can be said that actually, both the creditor and debtor enjoy benefits from the same. The debtor gets to obtain a loan without necessarily giving a portion of his or her ownership of a property to the creditor. The creditors, on the other hand, reap the fruits of higher interest rates from the money they lent.

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Unsecured loans are the safest way to obtain a loan on the part of the debtor but they also provide for higher risks on the part of the creditor. As a result, creditors impose reasonable higher and stricter requirements for the applicants of unsecured loans. Upon approval, the debtor certainly enjoys the great benefits of obtaining a loan without having mortgaged any of his or her property. The important thing in unsecured loans is that the person must maintain or improve ones credit score and credibility. This is the major factor in determining whether or not one can avail of an unsecured loans other than the applicants present financial condition.

About the Author: Troy Charles G. Burton enjoys writing for which offers

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Dermot Mannion becomes new Aer Lingus CEO

Saturday, April 23, 2005

Dermot Mannion has been named the new Chief Executive of Ireland’s national carrier, Aer Lingus. Mr. Mannion, 47, will take up the post in August 2005.

Aer Lingus almost went bankrupt in 2002, but a major cost-cutting effort by former CEO Willie Walshe lead to a dramatic turnaround in the airline’s fortunes, posting its largest ever profit in 2004. However, Willie Walshe left after a dispute with the government over privatization. He has since landed the top job at British Airways.

Mr. Mannion, an accountant, has extensive experience of aviation, having worked for the Dubai based airline Emirates since 1995. There he worked as Finance Director and later President of Group Support Services. He originally comes from County Sligo and is a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin.

Wikinews holds Reform Party USA presidential candidates forum

Tuesday, January 3, 2012

Three men are currently seeking the presidential nomination of the Reform Party of the United States of America: small business owner Andre Barnett, Earth Intelligence Network CEO Robert Steele, and former college football coach Robby Wells. Wikinews reached out to these candidates and asked each of them five questions about their campaigns. There were no space limits placed on the responses, and no candidate was exposed to another’s responses before making their own. The answers are posted below in unedited form for comparison of the candidates.

The Reform Party is a United States third party that was founded in 1995 by industrialist Ross Perot. Perot ran as the party’s first presidential nominee in 1996, and won over eight percent of the popular vote, the highest percentage for a third party candidate since. In 1998, professional wrestler Jesse Ventura ran on the Reform Party ticket and was elected Governor of Minnesota. The party fell in prominence during the lead-up to the 2000 presidential election when it was plagued by infighting between ideological factions. In 2000, paleoconservative Pat Buchanan won the presidential nomination, and went on to receive only 0.4 percent of the popular vote in the general election. In 2004, the party opted to endorse consumer advocate Ralph Nader, but ended the year nearly bankrupt. In 2008, Ted Weill won the party’s presidential nomination, but appeared on the ballot in only one state and won a total of 481 votes.

The party is currently trying to rebuild and has opened several new state chapters. They will attempt to appear on the ballot in more states for the 2012 presidential election. The party is expected to nominate its presidential ticket during the National Convention this summer.


  • 1 The candidates
  • 2 Forum
    • 2.1 Question 1
    • 2.2 Question 2
    • 2.3 Question 3
    • 2.4 Question 4
    • 2.5 Question 5
  • 3 Related articles
  • 4 Sources

Sex offender pretends to be 12 years old; enrolls into seventh grade

Thursday, January 25, 2007

A man in Arizona is accused of pretending to be 12 years old, by using make-up to disguise his age, and then enrolling himself into 7th grade classes around the state, in at least two middle schools. The man is also being accused of assaulting a girl, but the name of the girl is not known. Police will not release details about the assault.

Neil Havens Rodreick II, 29, is a convicted sex-offender who is from Oklahoma and police arrested Rodreick when he attempted to enroll into Mingus Springs Charter School located in Chino Valley, Arizona using what school officials thought to be fake documents. Rodreick spent nearly the whole day at the school. Rodreick also attended another charter school from August 14 to November of 2006, Imagine School at Rosefield. Rodreick attended a total of 50 days at Imagine before he was dismissed from the school for not attending class enough. Rodreick is currently being held inside the Yavapai County jail.

“Our first priority is to help our students and our families establish a sense of security on our campus,” said a spokeswoman for the Imagine school, Rhonda Cagle.

Cagle also describes Rodreick as being “quiet.”

“He was quiet. He turned in his homework. By most accounts he was aloof and kept to himself,” added Cagle.

Rodreick attempted to use fake admissions documents and a fake birth certificate to enroll into the charter school. Authorities are charging Rodreick with misdemeanor assault, failure to register as a sex offender in Arizona, possessing forgery devices, conspiracy to commit forgery, and conspiracy to commit fraud.

Rodreick also tried to enroll into the school using a false name, “Casey Price.”

Police are also saying that Rodreick fooled two other men into believing he was 12 years old.

Lonnie Stiffler, 61 and Robert James Snow, 43, were Rodreick’s housemates in Arizona and met Rodreick on the internet in Oklahoma. Both Stiffler and Snow were under the impression that Rodreick was a “preteen,” according to police, and that all three men were in a continuing relationship that included sex.

Another man, Brian J. Nellis, 34, was also arrested by police at Rodreick’s home. Police say Nellis followed the three other men from Oklahoma to Arizona. All men were arrested on January 18, 2007.

All four men are being charged with fraud and forgery, but Nellis, Snow and Rodreick will be charged with failure for registering as sex offenders.

Police also discovered a video at the home, that shows Rodreick having sex with what appears to be an underage child. Police do not know who the child is, or how old he is, but that he is a “juvenile.”

Rodreick was convicted in 1996 for lewdly propositioning to a 6-year-old boy.

Bankruptcy for U.S. automaker GM becomes almost certain after bondholder offers fail

Thursday, May 28, 2009

The United States automobile manufacturing firm General Motors announced on Wednesday that most of its bondholders did not exchange GM’s US$27 billion debt for a ten percent share in the company’s stock.

The automaker, in financial straits, has a June 1 deadline to finish a government restructuring plan that includes plant closures and other debt reduction measures. U.S. President Barack Obama’s administration said it would not give more financial aid to the firm unless 90% of GM’s bondholders would agree on compromises that would significantly reduce the firm’s costs.

“The principal amount of notes tendered was substantially less than the amount required by GM to satisfy the debt reduction requirement,” GM said in a statement.

“They said no. That’s it. They tried. That’s why they’re going to have to file for bankruptcy,” said a university professor from the University of Michigan who specializes in bankruptcy.

Food packages to Vestas occupiers cut off

Sunday, August 2, 2009

Food deliveries from the RMT were allowed into the Vestas plant in Newport, England yesterday, but were cut off by Vestas management this afternoon.

Protesters at the Isle of Wight factory celebrated the delivery of supermarket bags filed with groceries, which entered with a police escort. This morning, the sixteen remaining occupiers were told to prepare a list of items for future deliveries. But, according to “Mark”, an occupier in the Vestas plant, this afternoon Vestas management reversed their decision, terming the August 1 food delivery a one-time “goodwill gesture” and saying food would no longer be allowed in. The food delivery followed a formal complaint by the RMT that denying the occupiers food was a violation of their human rights. The people inside the factory have been conducting their occupation since July 20, in protest against the closure of the factory, which produces wind turbine blades for the generation of wind power, and the loss of 625 jobs in the Isle of Wight and nearby areas.

Mark went on to praise the “brave people” who have circumvented the security ring around the plant in order to get food and other items to the occupiers. An electric kettle thrown at the end of a rope up to the occupiers is said to be working well. Mark also noted that Louise Christian, a prominent British human rights lawyer, is now representing the Vestas occupiers.

While the number of occupiers at the Vestas plant — originally nearly thirty, now only sixteen — have dwindled, Mark says the ones who remain are “very determined” and furthermore hold no ill will toward their co-workers who have left the occupation. In particular, the occupiers offered sympathy for Luke Paxton, who they say left the occupation due to a combination of personal issues and malnutrition brought on by the deprivation of food. Paxton, Mark said, has the remaining occupiers’ “full support” and continues to campaign for the Vestas workers.

Mark also clarified the origins of the occupation. In contrast to claims that green socialist group Workers’ Climate Action were behind the occupation, Mark presented a more nuanced picture: the Vestas workers’ initial contacts were with veterans of the occupation of Visteon‘s auto parts plants, with the AWL, SWP and Socialist Party becoming involved later with “quite a big involvement” from all groups. Members of Workers’ Climate Action attended Vestas workers’ meetings and gave their opinions, but, Mark says, a committee organised by the workers and composed of workers was making all the decisions.

We have Polish workers with us. They’re our friends.

Mark also strongly rejected the support of Solidarity, a “nationalist trade union” closely associated with the BNP. In a July 24 statement, Solidarity backed the Vestas workers, with union executive member David Kerr saying “We are behind the Vestas workers 100 per cent. British jobs must be protected.” Mark, in reply, told Wikinews: “We do not want their support…they go against a lot of the things people believe in here. We have Polish workers with us. They’re our friends.”

Most of the Vestas occupiers remain independent of trade unions, with only three of the sixteen people inside being members of any union.

Mark closed with a message of solidarity with the occupiers of two Thomas Cook branches in Dublin, Ireland, whose employees began a sit-in at their offices on Friday after the announcement of surprise closures. “We fully support what you’re doing. Don’t back down…do not be pushed around, do not be intimidated”.

The Vestas occupiers have also exchanged messages of solidarity with SsangYong Motor Company in South Korea. Workers at SsangYong have been occupying their factory since May 22 in protest against a 36% cut in employees there.

The occupation continues accompanied by a warning of increased union unrest in Britain. Neil O’Brien of centre-right think tank Policy Exchange told The Daily Telegraph that, while labour unrest had increased, the current state of affairs is “nothing compared to what is going to happen once the brakes are slammed on public spending.”

Former Satyam CEO Raju, his brother and CFO arrested and detained in profit-fraud scandal

Monday, January 12, 2009

Byrraju Ramalinga Raju, founder and chairman of Satyam Computer Services, and his brother, B. Rama Raju, the company’s managing director, were arrested late Friday by Andhra Pradesh police. The brothers were placed under judicial custody in a Hyderabad, India jail and will remain there until January 23. Facing charges of criminal breach of trust (Section 406 of IPC), criminal conspiracy (Section 120-B), cheating (Section 420), falsification of records and forgery (Section 468), and fraudulent cancellation of securities (Section 477-a), they face up to ten years imprisonment if convicted.

After 18 hours of interrogation by the Crime Investigation Department (CID) at the state police headquarters, the Raju brothers were sent to the Chanchalguda prison and slept Saturday night on the floor along with 26 other low-risk inmates.

S. Bharat Kumar, the Rajus’s lawyer, asked the magistrate to issue orders for health monitoring. “His blood pressure is fluctuating and he needs medical treatment,” said Bharat Kumar. Mr. Raju appeared before the court Saturday while a team of doctors visited him after he had complained of chest pain.

Raju has Hepatitis-C, and both brothers have high blood pressure, so health precautions are necessary while imprisoned. Prison rules mandate service of jail food thrice a day. The menu includes 650 gm of rice thrice a day with 250 gm of vegetable curry and 125 gm of ‘daal’ plus tea twice a day.

Satyam’s chief financial officer Vadlamani Srinivas, who was also arrested Saturday, had undergone preliminary investigation and appeared Sunday before a special court, according to A. Sivanarayana, Andhra Pradesh additional director general of police. Srinivas was remanded to judicial custody until January 23 by Mr. D. Ramakrishna, Sixth Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, and sent to the Chanchalguda jail with the Raju brothers after interrogation by CID’s Crime Branch (the CB-CID). During his Saturday night arrest and probe by CB-CID, Srinivas made revelations which are contained in his confession letter as submitted to Network 18. “According to me fixed deposits are unreal and fictitious which were managed and was an understanding between the audit section management,” Srinivas stated.

The Hyderabad court on Monday postponed the bail hearings of the Raju brothers and Srinivas to January 16. To be defended by a battalion of 25 lawyers, the three accused will remain in Chanchalguda Central Jail until further court order. The Raju brothers were shifted Sunday to a mid-size Old Hospital Barrack cell shared with a bootlegger.


  • 1 The offences
  • 2 About Satyam Computer Services
  • 3 Impact on Satyam Computer Services finances and reactions
  • 4 Related news
  • 5 Sources

In 2008, the company struggled to purchase two infrastructure companies founded by family members of company founder and CEO Dr. Raju – Maytas Infrastructure and Maytas Properties – for $1.6 billion, despite concerns raised by independent board directors. Dr. Raju tendered his resignation on January 7 after due notice of falsified accounts to board members and the SEBI.

Since January 7 when two lawsuits were commenced, dozens of other class action law suits were filed against Satyam for hundreds of millions of dollars damages based on fraud in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York in Manhattan, among others. The securities fraud class-action lawsuits have been filed on behalf of investors who bought Satyam American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) since 2004.

On Wednesday Dr. Raju admitted to falsifying and overstating Satyam’s cash reserves by $1B US dollars (£661m) or 94% of its cash and bank balances on books at the end of September.

The fraud was perpetrated several years ago to bridge “a marginal gap” between actual and accounting books operating profits, and continued for several years. “It was like riding a tiger, not knowing how to get off without being eaten,” B. Raju said.

In a letter to the board, Dr. Raju said that neither he nor the managing director had benefited financially from the inflated revenues. Further claiming that none of the board members had any knowledge of the dire company situation, he noted that Satyam’s balance sheet as of the September 30, 2008, carried inflated figures for cash and bank balances of INR 5,040 crore (as against INR 5,361 crore reflected in the books). He alleged it also carried an accrued interest of INR 376 crore which was non-existent. He confessed that he himself prepared an understated liability of INR 1,230 crore on account of funds amid an overstated debtors’ position of INR 490 crore (as against INR 2,651 crore in the books).

Indian analysts have compared the Satyam-Raju scandal to the infamous American Enron scandal. Immediately following the media expose, PricewaterhouseCoopers, auditor of Satyam’s accounts, was set to be probed for complicity in the controversy. Times Now has reported that the Andhra Pradesh CID arrested PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) representative Gopal Krishnan for investigation on Saturday night.

New York-listed Satyam Computer Services Ltd., India’s fourth-biggest software firm, is a consulting and information technology services company based in Hyderabad, India. Founded in 1987 by Dr. Byrraju Ramalinga Raju, Satyam’s network spans 67 countries on six continents. It employs 53,000 professionals in India, the United States, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Canada, Hungary, Singapore, Malaysia, China, Japan, Egypt and Australia. Its monthly salary outflow is estimated at six billion rupees ($125 million). Deriving more than half of its revenues from the United States, it serves 700 global companies, 185 of which are Fortune 500 corporations.

Satyam’s clients include Nestle, Ford, General Electric Co., General Motors Corp., Nissan Motor Co., Applied Materials Inc., Caterpillar Inc., Cisco Systems Inc. and Sony Corp., and brought in about $40bn last year.

In December 2008, a failed acquisition attempt involving the company Maytas led to a plunge in Satyam’s share price. After Wednesday’s confession, Satyam stocks fell further by more than 70%, while the BSE SENSEX dropped to 7.3% Wednesday, causing the removal of Satyam Computer Services from its indices on Thursday. The shares free fell to 11.50 rupees on Friday, their lowest level since March 1998, compared with around last year’s high of 544 rupees.

The New York Stock Exchange has terminated trading in Satyam stock as of January 7, while the National Stock Exchange of India said it will remove Satyam from its S&P CNX Nifty 50-share index from January 12.

India’s biggest-ever corporate fraud has seriously tainted India Inc.‘s strong corporate governance image. “The admission of fraud in financial affairs has created an adverse impression in the minds of trade, business and industry across the world,” the Indian government admitted. The government intervened on Friday night, dismissing Satyam’s board of directors, announcing it will appoint representatives to manage the affairs of the insolvent outsourcing giant. The board would meet within seven days. Dr Yeduguri Samuel Rajasekhara Reddy, chief Minister of State of Andhra Pradesh, India, on Sunday said that the main agenda is to protect the jobs of the software professionals. “We are taking all needful steps in coordination with the government of India to ensure that the jobs of 53,000 engineers are protected and the shareholders’ money is salvaged,” Reddy said.

“We are working on the names. The Satyam case is an aberration. The credibility of the Indian corporate sector in general, and IT sector in particular, should not be allowed to suffer because of this.” Prem Chand Gupta, the Corporate Affairs Minister said. The Federal Government of India appointed a three-member independent board with full authority for Satyam on Sunday and was set to convene within 24 hours. “We have appointed Deepak Parekh, chairman of Housing Development Finance Corporation, Kiran Karnik, former president of IT industry body NASSCOM and C. Achutan, former member of Securities and Exchange Board (SEBI) of India,” Mr. Gupta said.

In early Monday trading (0535 GMT) after the creation of the three-member board, Satyam shares rocketed upwards 60% to 38.15 rupees, even though the main Mumbai market was down more than 2%. BBC reported that Satyam shares have jumped 51% to 36.05 rupees on Monday after the stock lost 87% last week. “The constitution of the new board is seen as a positive step by the market. It’s a confidence boosting measure,” K.K. Mital, Globe Capital, New Delhi head of portfolio management services said. “But the rally will depend largely on the financial situation at the company and the kind of measures that are taken to improve liquidity,” he added.

The Company Law Board, however, has requested Satyam’s interim board not to implement its decisions. “We are asked by the Company Law Board not to implement the decisions of the board. But we are allowed to continue our activity. The team which was constituted recently is continuing its work,” Satyam head global marketing and communications, Mr. Hari Thalapalli, said.

Lazard Ltd., who has a 7.4% stake in Satyam, sought representation on the new board and wrote as much to The Indian Ministry of Corporate Affairs. “As the largest shareholder in the company, we want to be consulted in whatever decisions are being taken by the Indian government. We have written to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs and are awaiting a reply from them,” Hitesh Jain, a partner at ALMT Legal, who claimed to represent Lazard, said. “It is a fair proposal and we will take a decision as and when we clear other issues. No decision on this has been taken yet,” P.C. Gupta replied.

Meanwhile, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) also announced it will try to control the damage and take steps to boost investor confidence. “This exercise will be undertaken after the third quarter results and is expected to be completed by end of February this year,” a SEBI official statement said. A SEBI team is also investigating acting-CEO Ram Mynampati whose salary was greater than that of founder Dr. Raju and all the directors combined. Dr. Raju had just one fifth of Mynampati’s total package of over Rs 3.5 crore as of March 2008. All the directors comparably received only a total of Rs 2.6 crore as salary, commissions, sitting fees, professional fees and other receivables.

Further, the Andhra Pradesh Police CID and teams assigned by the Economic Offences Wing of the CB-CID conducted searches Sunday of homes of the accused including the ex-CFO’s office to gather documentary evidence about the financial fraud.

Ebay A Golden Opportunity To Make Handsome Online Money At Home

Ebay – A Golden Opportunity To Make Handsome Online Money At Home



Today, many people are choosing to work at home and make money selling on eBay. As you’re reading right now thousands are making a full or part time income with online auctions. Why? Well, because the concept is simple, you can make money from home and you can have a lot of fun doing it. Of these people who choose to start an online auction business and make money from home, many will use dropshippers to get their business up and running. Then once they have products that are selling really well, they will look to locate these products at a better price. But where? Where does one find products at a better price? The answer is right here is this article.

Have you ever wondered how some smart people grow rich and retire wealthy?

How do they achieve their business success? What is their secret to making big money? What is their business strategy?

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Well, their easy and proven strategy, which they would prefer to keep a family secret, is…

They buy closeouts, liquidations & customer returns for pennies on the wholesale dollar. These closeout buyers easily sell liquidation bargains at prices, much lower than their competitors! These smart dealers achieve rapid turnover and huge profits. Buyers often tell us about long lines of eager customers, snaking all around the block, each time they receive one of best truckloads. Wow!

Retailers, exporters, auctioneers and closeout dealers continuously re-order, which means that they do very well with these overstock merchandise and hence earn very good income rather continuous income month after month by repeating these orders.

You see, once you are comfortable with what you are doing, have run several regular auctions and have products that are popular and selling really well, it’s then time to do some research on getting these products at a better price. This will allow you to offer these products to your customers at a better price and thus increase your auction sales, which in turn will increase your auction profits. O.K. “But, where do I get these products for a better price?”

The answer is Liquidators! As explained in my book, a Liquidation Company is a company that buys surplus, over runs, bankruptcies, going out of business inventory and the like. They purchase this merchandise for pennies on the dollar, and can afford to sell this merchandise at below wholesale prices and still make a profit. Therefore they sell for less and you reap the benefits.

There are many Liquidators who could have just what you’re looking for. There are General Merchandise Liquidators who basically purchase and sell all sorts of general merchandise. At any given time you can find anything from house wares to kids toys. Collectables to clothing. Jewelry to cosmetics. All for a fraction of the price of dropshippers.

Then, there are Liquidators who specialize and only purchase and sell merchandise in a specific niche. This niche could be electronics, jewelry, brand name clothing and so on. Whatever the niche is, this will be the only type of inventory that Liquidator will carry. For example, a Liquidator who specializes in only kids toys would purchase products from toy stores or department stores with a kids toy section that are going out of business, declaring bankruptcy or have overstock. From that inventory, you can find some of the latest and most popular products on the market.

Liquidators are similar to Wholesalers and Dropshippers in that you will have to become a member to have access to their inventory. Most require no fee to become a member, while others may charge a nominal fee. The one thing that does differ is that Liquidators have a set number of units you must purchase in order to get a great price. A Liquidator will purchase their inventory in bulk enabling them to get the merchandise for pennies on the dollar. Therefore, they will want to sell the merchandise in cases or lots.

If you have done your due diligence, have ran several regular auctions and you know you have a Hot Product, then Liquidators are your answer to more auction profits. Remember that selling products is all about research. What products are Hot? How much can you sell the product for, and where can you get the product at the best price.

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Flat Roofs

By Naldo Camarones

Flat roofs are a great way to keep a building safe from water. Knowing exactly what to do with a flat roof will ensure you have a working roof system that will last a long time.

Though they may look good, and are very common, flat roofs do require routine maintenance and detailed repair in order to effectively prevent water infiltration. If this is done correctly, you’ll be happy with your flat roof for a very long time.

Flat roofs aren’t as glamorous and/or popular as its newer counterparts, such as slate, tile, or copper roofs. However, they are just as important and require even more attention. In order to avoid throwing away money on short-term repairs, you should know exactly how flat roof systems are designed, the various types of flat roofs that are available, and the importance of routine inspection and maintenance.

A flat roof system works by providing a waterproof membrane over a building. It consists of one or more layers of hydrophobic materials that is placed over a structural deck with a vapor barrier that is typically placed between the deck and the roof membrane.

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Flashing, or thin strips of material such as copper, intersect with the membrane and the other building components to prevent water infiltration. The water is then directed to drains, downspouts, and gutters by the roof’s slight pitch.

There are four most common types of flat roof systems. Listed in order of increasing durability and cost, they are: roll asphalt, single-ply membrane, multiple-ply or built-up, and flat-seamed metal. They can range anywhere from as low as $2 per square foot for roll asphalt or single-ply roofing that is applied over and existing roof, to $20 per square foot or more for new metal roofs.

Used since the 1890s, asphalt roll roofing generally consists of one layer of asphalt-saturated organic or fiberglass base felts that are applied over roof felt with nails and cold asphalt cement and usually covered with a granular mineral surface. The seams are typically covered over with a roofing compound. It can last about 10 years.

Single-ply membrane roofing is the newest type of roofing material. It is often used to replace multiple-ply roofs. 10 to 12 year warranties are typical, but proper installation is crucial and maintenance is still required.

Multiple-ply or built-up roofing, also known as BUR, is made of overlapping rolls of saturated or coated felts or mats that are interspersed with layers of bitumen and surfaced with a granular roofing sheet, ballast, or tile pavers that are used to protect the underlying materials from the weather. BURs are designed to last 10 to 30 years, which depends on the materials used.

Ballast, or aggregate, of crushed stone or water-worn gravel is embedded in a coating of asphalt or coal tar. Since the ballast or tile pavers cover the membrane, it makes inspecting and maintaining the seams of the roof difficult.

Lastly, flat-seamed roofs have been used since the 19 th century. Made from small pieces of sheet metal soldered flush at the joints, it can last many decades depending on the quality of the material, maintenance, and exposure to the elements.

Galvanized metal does require regular painting in order to avoid corrosion and split seams need to be resoldered. Other metal surfaces, such as copper, can become pitted and pinholed from acid raid and usually requires replacing. Today copper, lead-coated copper, and terne-coated stainless steel are favored as long-lasting flat roofs.

About the Author: Roof Resources and Information around the theme


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Orris Curio City | Orris Curio City Plots Noida

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Orris Curio City | Orris Curio City Plots Noida



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Orris Curio City Noida brings you an opportunity to buy your house, your way on sprawling plots of 200 sq. yd. and above and is also priced between Rs. 52 lakhs and Rs. 2.60 crores. Orris Curio City is a place where a varied abundant mix of activities awaits you; where you are privileged with serene surroundings and landscaped open spaces. Orris Curio City Noida reveals a grand lifestyle that is splendid and sensational. A few of the key amenities being offered by the Orris Curio City include artistic yoga & Pilates zone, gaming parlor, tennis & squash court, skating ring, gymnasium, art gallery, theme gardens, private terrace / garden, swimming pool, recreational facilities, vaastu compliant, fire alarm, park / play area, reserved parking, power back up and security personnel. Orris Curio City offers a wide range of comforts and conveniences in terms of location as well as amenities which are aimed at providing some of the highest living standards in Greater Noida.

Orris Curio City is being launched by one of the leading developers of residential property in Delhi (NCR) The Orris Group. Orris has been dedicatedly involved with promoting and delivering top quality projects, aiming to deliver nothing but the best. With a stronghold in the realty market, the Orris group is involved in the development of commercial as well as residential properties in and around Greater Noida. With such strong backing and an excellent track record, Orris Curio City is sure to be a highly successful residential property in Greater Noida.

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